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While working on theoretical chemistry, we came across physical questions without obvious answers. The search for their answers produced interesting results. Over the past 15 years, we have gained incredible knowledge, which we would like to share with you.

Victor Gankin,
President of the Institute of Theoretical Chemistry

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Understanding the physical nature of chemical bonds allowed us to advance in our comprehension of several physical phenomena:

  1. the natures of the interactions of masses and of the relations of mass and charge
  2. a rethinking of the "Unified field theory"
  3. the physical nature of intramolecular and intra-atomic forces
  4. an interpretation of the "wave properties" of microparticles

Experimental data, received during the study of gravitational interactions and inertial qualities (mass), causes us to not consider these interactions as independent. All bodies consist of microscopic charges. If the amounts of positive and negative charge are equal, then the body is electrically neutral overall. Should this state be even slightly altered, the body will acquire a slight charge. In experiments , the relation of the atom to electrons and protons and the determination of the ionization potential of different atoms we see that electrons leave heated bodies much more easily (using less energy) than protons. Electrons that leave heated bodies may attach to other bodies, giving them negative charge.  The fact that the sun, the earth and microparticles all have charge serves to confirm the existence of an excess of positive or negative charge in macro- and micro-bodies. Macrobodies have an intermediate position in the sequence of cosmic body - macrobody - microparticle.

We believe that the fact that microbodies have charge explains the inertial qualities of these charges; this also goes for macrobodies, as all macrobodies consist of microparticles.

We will remind you of the traditional approach to mass interactions. Historically, it is based on mechanics. In this conception, physical bodies are considered electrically neutral. Therefore, bodies' attraction to each other and their inertial qualities are explained by properties of mass, which is shared by all bodies. This mechanistic description of the world logically led to the creation of the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.

While the Theory of Relativity considers  the behavior of bodies at speeds close to the speed of light, quantum (wave) mechanics describes the behavior of microparticles. Traditional mechanics deals with the motion of massive bodies at speeds far lower than the speed of light. It is impossible not to be impressed by the beauty and simplicity of the mechanistic description of the world. In this description, energy and mass are in fact unified by the simple equation E = mc2.  



All connections between the most important characteristics of the mechanistic world are described by one very simple equation. In case of the appearance of a more complex equation (like Shroedinger's equation), it is also given a simple form (Нψ = Еψ). Within the frame of this complete and final view of the world, we basically begin to repeat the ancient history of the mechanistic interpretation. The first time around, there was much discussion of the end of physics and the possibility of predicting all events on the basis of knowledge of the impulses of micro-objects. On the other hand, quantum mechanics can only assess the probability of this or that event. Though the theory addresses only probability, the idea of the finished description of the world remains.

At the basis of the accepted view of the world is the idea of mass, the physical nature of which is unknown. The mass of a body supposedly depends upon the speed of its motion, with the acceleration of which mass increases. Mass turns into energy in the course of intra-atomic reactions. Does this seem surprising to you?

The explanation of the attractions of bodies and inertia was introduced by Newton. Newton imagined gravitation as a mysterious attraction between massive bodies, which explained the actions of heavenly bodies and the falling of bodies towards Earth. The primary idea of this hypothesis was that bodies with mass possess natural forces of attraction. Newton created the base for a new world view. In his theory, the existence and movement of masses under mechanical forces occurs in time and space. Mass was introduced as the initial substance. The initial phenomena related to mass were the attraction of mass and the inertial qualities of mass. For the entire history of the development of science the term "mass" was always one of the most basic and therefore did not require an explanation of its physical essence. Mass is something we observe constantly in daily life, includes in itself the notion of matter and is perceivable by our senses. Newton's equation, according to which the acceleration a body acquires under the influence of a force is inversely proportional to the body's mass, appeared obvious.

In the later created theory of relativity, mass depends on a body's speed and can turn into energy and back, while in quantum mechanics it determines wave properties.

Therefore, we see that there is some essence, the physical nature of which is unknown. Its numerical value is determined by the behavior of bodies without consideration of their microscopic structure. This essence appeared in a period in the history of the development of natural science, when the structure of matter was still unknown. According to experimental data, motionless particles, having mass at rest, have charge, and all charged particles have mass. So far, it has been unable to separate mass from the charged particle!

We believe that this array of facts leads us to the following logical conclusion. Mass was a necessary but intermediate essence, introduced at a certain stage of scientific development, as were the philosopher's atom, philosopher's stone, calorie, flogiston, etc. Now, when the atomic-molecular structure of matter is known, it is necessary to explain physical (including mechanical) phenomena without using this concept.

Mechanical phenomena boil down to electric phenomena, described by electrodynamics, where the initial physical conceptis is charge. According to experimental data, charge is always inexplicably connected to mass. A charged particle always manifests gravitational and inertial properties.

We believe that, in order to explain the multiplicity of mechanical phenomena and observable relationships, we must use electrodynamics. The explanation of the periodic law, which was first formulated by Mendeleev as the properties of elements being periodically dependent on their atomic weights (masses), can be seen as analogous to this approach. After the discovery of the atom's structure, it was shown and explained that the properties of elements are dependent on the charges of nuclei.

Following the path of electrodynamics' description of the world, we need to explain not only those phenomena based on such concepts as mass, gravitation and inertia, but also those listed in the frameworks of the theories of relativity and quantum mechanics.

Let's look at several physical phenomena (described earlier using the concept of mass and all its attendant attributes) from the position of electrodynamics: the question of atomic structure, the physical meaning of the concept of mass, force, the question of gravitation, self-induction, and more.

We look at these physical topics with the eyes of chemists. We believe that this non-standard view can help physicists to leave their usual framework.

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