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It was proved in the framework of physics and chemistry 100 years ago that matter is made up of electrons, protons and neutrons. From experiments, we know that free neutrons decay to half into electrons and protons in 614 seconds. The inertial properties of electrons, protons and neutrons are determined by the mass-spectrographic method.

A mass-spectrometer is a device used to determine the masses of charged particles and atoms (molecules) by the nature of the movement of their ions in electric and magnetic fields.

It is impossible to measure the mass of a neutral atom by the traditional method of mass-spectrometry. However, if you take away from or add to this atom one or more electrons, it will turn into an ion, and the nature of the movement of this ion in these fields will be determined by its mass and charge. Strictly speaking, it is not mass that is determined by mass-spectrometers but the ratio of mass to charge. If the charge is known, then the ion mass is determined uniquely, and hence it is possible to calculate the mass of neutral atom and its nucleus. Mass-spectrometers can be very different from each other constructively. It is possible to use for them both static fields and time-varying fields, magnetic fields and/or electric fields.

Let's consider one of the simplest variants.

A mass-spectrometer consists of the following main parts:

(1) An ion source, where neutral atoms become ions (for example, by heating or microwave field) and are accelerated by an electric field, (3) areas of constant electric and magnetic fields and (7) an ion detector which determines the coordinates of the points where ions crossed these fields.

From the ion source (1), accelerated ions enter the area (3) of constant and homogeneous electric and magnetic fields through the slot (2). The direction of the electric field is given by the position of capacitor sheets and is shown by arrows. The magnetic field is directed perpendicularly to the plane of the figure.

In area 3, the electric and magnetic fields deflect the ions in the opposite direction, and the magnitudes of the intensities of these fields E and Н1 are selected so that the forces of their action on the ions (respectively qЕ and qvН1, where q is charge and v is ion velocity) would compensate for each other, so that qE = qvН1. A monochromatic ion beam is created. When the ion velocity is v = Е/Н1, the ion beam moves in area 3,  deviating, and runs through the second slot (4) into the area (5) of a homogeneous and constant magnetic field with intensity Н2. In this field, the ion moves in a circular orbit (6) whose radius R is determined from the ratio mv2/R = qvH2, where m is mass of the ion. Since v = Е/Н1, the ion's mass is determined   from would ...
 Scheme of the mass-spectrometer: 
1 - the source of  ions,
2, 4 - slot diaphragms, 
3-an area of homogeneous and constant
 electric and magnetic fields (power lines
of electric fields which are directed along
the plane of the figure m, are shown by
arrows and the area of the magnetic field is  shown by hatching with its power lines perpendicular to the plane of the figure), 
5 - an area of homogeneous and constant magnetic field (power lines are perpendi-
cular to the plane of the figure),
6 - the ion trajectory,
7 - the detector

...compensate each other, i.e. equation qE = qvН1 would be. Monochromatic ion beam is created. When the ion velocity v = Е/Н1 the ion beam moves in area 3 without deviating and runs through the second slot 4 entering the area 5 of a homogeneous and constant magnetic field with intensity Н2. In this field, the ion moves in a circular orbit 6 whose radius R is determined from the ratio mv2/R = qvH2 where m is mass of the ion. Since v = Е/Н1, the ion mass is determined from the ratio:

m = qH2R/v = qH1H2R/E.

Thus, in case of a known ion charge, the ion's mass is determined by the radius R of the circular orbit in area 5.

If a photographic plate is used as an ion detector (7), this radius will be shown, with high accuracy, by a black dot at the point of the developed photographic plate where the ion beam reached. In modern mass-spectrometers, electron multipliers or microchannel plates are usually used as detectors. A mass-spectrometer can determine masses with very high relative accuracy Δm/m = 10-8 - 10-7.

Analysis of a mixture of atoms of different masses by the mass-spectrometer can also determine their proportion in this mixture, particularly the content of the various isotopes of a chemical element.

According to the accepted experimental process, inertial forces are entirely conditioned by the inertial properties of Newtonian mass (m) of a neutral matter, which does not carry a charge. However, in experiments, all analyzable particles carry charges. According to electrodynamics, charges themselves possess inertial properties which are not related to mechanical mass. At the same time, the inertial properties conditioned by the presence of charge are completely ignored in the treatment of the experimental results. In 2012, there will have been 100 years of mass-spectrometry but, so far, no work has appeared which contains criticism concerning the processing of experimental results and, accordingly, no answers to the question:

Why are the inertial properties of the electric charge of ion are not taken into account?

So, in an experiment, an electron having mass mе and charge q is added to a neutral atom having mass mА. However, according to electrodynamics, the charge q itself (even having no mass) should exhibit inertial properties which can be expressed in terms of electrodynamic mass mq. Thus the total mass of ion should be mА+me+mq. Nevertheless, in the process of mass-spectrometric investigations, the electrodynamic mass mq is not taken into account. The results are not contradictory. Why?

In previous studies, we have shown that the neutral Newtonian mass (which is not the charge carrier) was the entity introduced 300 years ago to coordinate (i.e. ad hoc) laws promoted by Newton with experimental data. For 300 years, the physical nature of Newtonian mass was not clarified. The history of phlogiston, caloric and mass showed that when the newly introduced entity cannot be determined experimentally, naturalists send it either to history or to the church. Accordingly, we felt the need to offer an alternative interpretation of the experimental data obtained with the help of mass-spectroscopy.

Phenomenological explanation

The electron mass me is the electrodynamic mass mq. Accordingly, the total mass of the ion is mА+me i.e., the electron has no neutral  mass whatsoever.

The task of the mass-spectroscopy experiment is the definition of value M (М=mА+me+mq) in the equation Мv2/R. During the experiment, the analyzed microparticle goes through electrostatic and magnetic fields where it gets the acceleration v2/R. Accordingly, the value M is determined by division of the value of centripetal force (in the experimental conditions Fcp is Lorentz force) by the magnitude of centripetal acceleration. I.e. quantitative determinations of the magnitude M in the accepted and supposed explanations are the same. In a uniform magnetic field directed perpendicular to the velocity vector, a charged particle will uniformly move in a circular orbit of constant radius R under the action of Lorentz force. In this case, the Lorentz force is the centripetal force. The figure below shows that the movement of electron and positron is conditioned by charges of these particles. Uncharged particles (such as Newtonian uncharged matter or modern Higgs bosons) do not interact with a uniform magnetic field and thus do not influence either the motion speed of particles in a circumferential direction (v) or the circle radius (R) or the centripetal acceleration (defined as v2/R).

As mentioned above, M = qH2R/v = qH1H2R/E.

Thus, in case of an ion with known charge, its mass is determined by the radius R of the circular orbit in the area 5. Radii of the orbits of electron and positron are identical, and thus the values m for electron and positron are identical. The charges of the electron and the positron are also opposite in sign and equal in magnitude. Therefore, the nature of the deviation of these particles in a magnetic field is determined by the charge. This fact is independent evidence that the curve radius and, accordingly, m, is determined only by the magnitude of the charge.

Another argument for the lack of an independent entity of Newtonian mass (m) is the following proof. According to modern physics textbooks for higher education institutions (for example, Trofimov T.I., Course of Physics, p. 184):

"For a qualitative explanation of magnetic phenomena with sufficient approximation, we can consider that an electron moves in an atom in circular orbits. The electron moving along one of these orbits is equivalent to a circular current loop" (p. 176). "Faraday's law can be reformulated like this: emf Ei   of electromagnetic induction in the circuit is numerically  equal and opposite in sign to the change rate of magnetic flow through  the surface limited by this circuitThis  law is  universal: emf  Ei does not depend on the method of change of the magnetic flow." I.e., a self-induction force acting on a charge moving with acceleration (according to Faraday's laws) is always equal to the force that caused the movement of charge with acceleration. The equality of these forces determines the motion of a charge in the circle and the system's stability. If the charge moving in accelerated motion were under the influence of not only the forces of self-induction but also of the forces conditioned by the inertial properties of Newtonian mass, centrifugal force would be greater than the centripetal one, and the charge would fly out of orbit, rather than spinning around.

Another consideration in favor of the absence of "classical" Newtonian mass is the positiveness of mass (there is no negative mass!), even within the mathematical approach. The equation

m = qH1H2R/E,

demonstrates that the nature of inertia is electromagnetic. Only electromagnetic quantities are in the right part of the equation: charge and the intensities of electric and magnetic fields.

"In the old books, authors often asserted that since nature has not given us two identical particles, of which one is neutral and the other is charged, we can never say what fraction of mass is electromagnetic and what is mechanical. However, it turns out that nature is quite generous and has given us exactly two such objects, so that when comparing the observed mass of a charged particle with a neutral mass, we can say whether the electromagnetic mass exists. Let's take, for example, the neutron and proton". [R. Feynman, R. Leighton, M. Sands, The Feynman lectures on physics, v.6, p. 318]

In determining the magnitude of the Lorentz force created by a proton in a mass-spectrometer, it was found that the radius (R) of a circle along which the proton begins to move when it gets into the area 5 is 1836 times greater than in the case of a positron. Positron and proton charges are equal in magnitude and in sign. Correspondingly, according to the information given above, one would expect the radii to be equal. The difference is currently attributed to the difference in the magnitude of Newtonian masses of these particles.

In determining the magnitude of Lorentz force created by the neutron (neutronium was sent up in the chamber) in the mass-spectrometer, it was found that the radius (R) of a circle along which neutronium starts to move when it gets into the area 5 is 3776 times greater than in the case of a positron. According to the accepted worldview, the neutron has no charge and, accordingly, the difference in inertial properties of the proton and neutron is attributed to Newtonian mass (uncharged neutral matter). However, despite the zero electric charge, the neutron is not a truly neutral particle.

A comparison of motion patterns of equally charged particles with different masses in the mass-spectrometer shows that the inertial properties are under the influence of not only the magnitude of electric charge but also of something else. In Feynman's lectures it is proved (see also the article "The inductance of electron") that the electromagnetic mass is also inversely proportional to the effective radius of the charge.                           

Additional independent evidence that the neutron consists of a proton and an electron is the proximity of the inertial properties of these particles. R. Feynman called the Newtonian mass the mechanical one and the mass conditioned by the inertial properties of charge the electromagnetic one. As shown above, the electromagnetic mass is determined in the mass-spectrometers.

Charged particles make up macrobodies. The total weight of the charged particles is the weight of the macrobody. The number of nucleons in 1 gram of a substance determines the weight of this 1 gram.

The atomic weight of elements is calculated by the formula

M=1,00732*Z+1,0087*N                                         (1)

where Z is the number of protons, N is the number of neutrons and the coefficients 1,00732 and 1,0087 take into account intranuclear interactions. Table 1 shows the calculation of the number of nucleons in 1 gram of various substances.

of some


of protons



of neutrons


Atomic weight

calculation by the formula (3)


Atomic weight

Reference book

1 g of substance contains atoms


1 g of substance contains
nucleones                *1023






















194 Pt







195 Pt







197 Au







Table 1

As we can see, the number of nucleons in 1 gram of a substance coincides to the 4th figure. The difference is less than 10-3%. This calculation is an additional argument in the macro-scale that the electromagnetic mass completely determines the weight of substances and that there is no mechanical mass.

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